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### 1) 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz

Tʜᴇ ʜᴜᴍᴀɴ ᴇᴀʀ ᴄᴀɴ ʜᴇᴀʀ ᴀ sᴏᴜɴᴅ ᴡʜᴏsᴇ ғʀᴇϙᴜᴇɴᴄʏ ʀᴀɴɢᴇs ғʀᴏᴍ 20 Hᴢ ᴛᴏ 20,000 Hᴢ. Tʜɪs ɪs ᴋɴᴏᴡɴ ᴀs ᴛʜᴇ ᴀᴜᴅɪʙʟᴇ ʀᴀɴɢᴇ ᴏғ ᴛʜᴇ ᴀᴠᴇʀᴀɢᴇ ʜᴜᴍᴀɴ ᴇᴀʀ.

2) sᴇᴇ ɪɴ ᴀᴛᴛᴀᴄʜᴍᴇɴᴛ

3) Iɴᴛᴇɴsɪᴛʏ ᴏғ Sᴏᴜɴᴅ:

Iɴᴛᴇɴsɪᴛʏ ᴏғ ᴀ sᴏᴜɴᴅ ᴡᴀᴠᴇ ɪs ᴅᴇғɪɴᴇᴅ ᴀs ᴛʜᴇ ᴀᴍᴏᴜɴᴛ ᴏғ sᴏᴜɴᴅ ᴇɴᴇʀɢʏ ᴘᴀssɪɴɢ ᴛʜʀᴏᴜɢʜ ᴀ ᴜɴɪᴛ ᴀʀᴇᴀ ᴘᴇʀ sᴇᴄᴏɴᴅ.

Iɴᴛᴇɴsɪᴛʏ ᴏғ sᴏᴜɴᴅ ɪs ɢɪᴠᴇɴ ᴀs:

I=PA

Wʜᴇʀᴇ,

I ɪs ᴛʜᴇ sᴏᴜɴᴅ ɪɴᴛᴇɴsɪᴛʏ

P ɪs ᴛʜᴇ ᴀᴄᴏᴜsᴛɪᴄ ᴘᴏᴡᴇʀ

A ɪs ᴛʜᴇ ɴᴏʀᴍᴀʟ ᴀʀᴇᴀ ᴛᴏ ᴛʜᴇ ᴅɪʀᴇᴄᴛɪᴏɴ ᴏғ ᴘʀᴏᴘᴀɢᴀᴛɪᴏɴ

Lᴏᴜᴅɴᴇss:

Lᴏᴜᴅɴᴇss ɪs ᴀ ᴍᴇᴀsᴜʀᴇ ᴏғ ᴛʜᴇ ʀᴇsᴘᴏɴsᴇ ᴏғ ᴛʜᴇ ᴇᴀʀ ᴛᴏ ᴛʜᴇ sᴏᴜɴᴅ. Tʜᴇ ʟᴏᴜᴅɴᴇss ᴏғ ᴀ sᴏᴜɴᴅ ɪs ᴅᴇғɪɴᴇᴅ ʙʏ ɪᴛs ᴀᴍᴘʟɪᴛᴜᴅᴇ. Tʜᴇ ᴀᴍᴘʟɪᴛᴜᴅᴇ ᴏғ ᴀ sᴏᴜɴᴅ ᴅᴇᴄɪᴅᴇs ɪᴛs ɪɴᴛᴇɴsɪᴛʏ, ᴡʜɪᴄʜ ɪɴ ᴛᴜʀɴ ɪs ᴘᴇʀᴄᴇɪᴠᴇᴅ ʙʏ ᴛʜᴇ ᴇᴀʀ ᴀs ʟᴏᴜᴅɴᴇss.

................

Tʜᴇʀᴇғᴏʀᴇ, ғᴏʟʟᴏᴡɪɴɢ ɪs ᴛʜᴇ ᴛᴀʙʟᴇ ᴡʜɪᴄʜ ᴇxᴘʟᴀɪɴs ᴛʜᴇ ᴅɪғғᴇʀᴇɴᴄᴇ ʙᴇᴛᴡᴇᴇɴ ʟᴏᴜᴅɴᴇss ᴀɴᴅ ɪɴᴛᴇɴsɪᴛʏ:

### Loudness Intensity difference

)Loudness is the measure of response of the ear to the sound.

0 Intensity is the sound power per unit area.

)Loudness is measured in decibels.

0 Intensity is measured in Watt per meter square.

)Loudness is dependent on the sensitivity of the human ears.

0 Intensity is independent of the sensitivity of the human ears.

)Loudness is a subjective quantity.

0 Intensity is an objective quantity

4) see in attachment

5)Sonar is a device that uses ultrasonic waves to measure the distance, direction and speed of underwater objects.

Principle: It uses the phenomenon of echoes in determining the sea-depth and locating the presence of under-water objects.

Working:

i) Sonar consists of a transmitter and a detector and is installed in a boat or a ship.

ii) The transmitter produces and transmits strong ultrasonic waves.

iii) These waves travel through the water and after striking the object the beam is reflected from the seabed and is received by an under-water detector which is also mounted on the ship.

iv) The detector converts the ultrasonic waves into electrical signals which are appropriately interpreted.

v) The time interval between transmission and reception of the ultrasonic signal is noted.

### have a nice day

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