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do you think we can blame the journalists of the 19th century for the war with spain? why or why not?

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In the 1890s, the concept of the "yellow press" was formed in the United States - this is a special kind of sensational reportage, the main method of which was to move the center of attention from the fact to its attractive presentation.

At that time, the largest monopolists of the newspaper business, J. P. Blavatsky, were fighting for the market. Pulitzer and W. R. Hurst. Their rivalry was one of the factors that pushed the United States to war with Spain, which eventually led to the redistribution of colonial possessions.

What kind of sensations did the media magnates offer in 1897-1898?

Both publishers came to the obvious conclusion: nothing could excite Americans as much as the struggle of Cubans for independence. Putlitzer, as well as Hearst, sent their correspondents to the "island of freedom".

Rival newspapers are beginning to be full of headlines about the atrocities of the Spaniards in Cuba, the articles are accompanied by images of brutal murders and robberies, but all this was based on fabricated facts.

One of the famous jokes of journalism is connected with this episode of history: in January 1897, Hearst sent an artist to Havana. After a while, he sent a telegram to New York: "Everything is quiet. Nothing happens. There is no war in sight. I'd like to come back." In response, Hearst telegraphed: "Provide me with pictures, and I guarantee war."

Other provocative actions of Hearst include the publication of the records of the Spanish ambassador, which contained an unflattering characterization of American President William McKinley, as well as the organization of the escape from the Havana prison of a young Cuban woman accused of treason.

The explosion of the battleship "Main" in February 1898 in the port of Havana can be called the apogee of the "newspaper battle". The cause of the incident was not precisely established, but both publishers began to put forward conspiracy theories directed against Spain.

Thus, the Spanish-American war can be called the forerunner of the information wars of the next century and the rise of the yellow press in the modern sense. This example of manipulation of public consciousness demonstrates only part of the tools of "soft power".

Now newspapers are doing business to make money, and sensational headlines are selling newspapers, especially those headlines that are above the fold.

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