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Jerome Wagner

State any three Indian geographical factors that affect the location of an industry​

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I. Geographical Factors:

Following are the important geographical factors influencing the location of


1. Raw Materials:

The significance of raw materials in manufacturing industry is so

fundamental that it needs no emphasising. Indeed, the location of industrial

enterprises is sometimes determined simply by location of the raw materials.

Modem industry is so complex that a wide range of raw materials is

necessary for its growth.

Further we should bear in mind that finished product of one industry may

well be the raw material of another. For example, pig iron, produced by

smelting industry, serves as the raw material for steel making industry.

Industries which use heavy and bulky raw materials in their primary stage in

large quantities are usually located near the supply of the raw materials.

It is true in the case of raw materials which lose weight in the process of

manufacture or which cannot bear high transport cost or cannot be

transported over long distances because of their perishable nature. This has

been recognized since 1909 when Alfred Weber published his theory of

location of industry.

The jute mills in West Bengal, sugar mills in Uttar Pradesh, cotton textile

mills in Maharashtra and Gujarat are concentrated close to the sources of raw

materials for this very reason. Industries like iron and steel, which use very

large quantities of coal and iron ore, losing lot of weight in the process of

manufacture, are generally located near the sources of coal and iron ore.

Some of the industries, like watch and electronics industries use very wide

range of light raw materials and the attractive influence of each separate

material diminishes. The result is that such industries are often located with

no reference to raw materials and are sometimes referred to as ‘footloose

industries’ because a wide range of locations is possible within an area of

sufficient population density.

2. Power:

Regular supply of power is a pre-requisite for the localisation of industries.

Coal, mineral oil and hydro-electricity are the three important conventional

sources of power. Most of the industries tend to concentrate at the source of


3. . Labour

No one can deny that the prior existence of a labour force is attractive to

industry unless there are strong reasons to the contrary. Labour supply is

important in two respects (a) workers in large numbers are often required; (b)

people with skill or technical expertise are needed. Estall and Buchanan

showed in 1961 that labour costs can vary between 62 per cent in clothing.

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