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Psychology

What was TRUE about the renewed interest in consciousness in the 1950s?



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For materialism, consciousness does not exist by itself, but is a product of matter. Ancient Greek materialists simplistically understood consciousness as something material. Democritus (470-371) argued that consciousness consists of atoms of fire and air and is warm breath. Within the framework of French materialism of the 18th century (D. Diderot, 1713-1784; Robins, Cabanis, 1757-1856), hylozoism (Greek living substance) became widespread, according to which all types of matter have the ability to feel and think. Hylozoism, in contrast to mechanism, removed the opposition of inert matter to an external force that brings it into a state of motion.

Within the metaphysical materialism of the 19th century, a vulgar-materialistic (simplified) approach arose. German physiologists Buechner (1824-1899), Moleschott (1822-1893), philosopher Dietzgen (1828-1888) considered consciousness as a physiological process, a direct property of the brain. The brain produces thought in the same way that the liver secretes bile (Vogt). According to scientific materialism (modern "vulgar materialism"), which arose in the 1950s in the United States, natural science is able to give an exhaustive description of spiritual phenomena that are identical to physical and constitute their subclass.

Metaphysical materialism denies the ideality of consciousness, interprets it as a kind of matter, since everything that exists is reduced to physical processes. Allegedly, materialistic philosophy must reject the fact of the existence of the ideal, otherwise it is non-materialistic. The concept of the ideal is the same uncertainty as the theological concept of God (D. Armstrong, J. Smart, R. Rorty, p. 1931).

Dialectical materialism proceeds from the fact that consciousness is not a special substance along with matter. The specificity of consciousness, characterized by the category of the ideal, lies in the fact that this is not a type, but a special property of highly organized matter.

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