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Thodor Thodor Dec 31, 2020

Question 1:Which of the following pairs will give displacement reactions?(a) NaCl solution and copper metal(b) MgCl2 solution and aluminium metal(c) FeSO4 solution and silver metal(d) AgNO3 solution and copper metal.Chapter 3 please Decideme​

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The Aufbau principle dictates the manner in which electrons are filled in the atomic orbitals of an atom in its ground state. It states that electrons are filled into atomic orbitals in the increasing order of orbital energy level. According to the Aufbau principle, the available atomic orbitals with the lowest energy levels are occupied before those with higher energy levels.

The word ‘Aufbau’ has German roots and can be roughly translated as ‘construct’ or ‘build up’. A diagram illustrating the order in which atomic orbitals are filled is provided below. Here, ‘n’ refers to the principal quantum number and ‘l’ is the azimuthal quantum number.

Aufbau Principle

The Aufbau principle can be used to understand the location of electrons in an atom and their corresponding energy levels. For example, carbon has 6 electrons and its electronic configuration is 1s22s22p2.

It is important to note that each orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons (as per the Pauli exclusion principle). Also, the manner in which electrons are filled into orbitals in a single subshell must follow Hund’s rule, i.e. every orbital in a given subshell must be singly occupied by electrons before any two electrons pair up in an orbital.

Salient Features of the Aufbau Principle

According to the Aufbau principle, electrons first occupy those orbitals whose energy is the lowest. This implies that the electrons enter the orbitals having higher energies only when orbitals with lower energies have been completely filled.

The order in which the energy of orbitals increases can be determined with the help of the (n+l) rule, where the sum of the principal and azimuthal quantum numbers determines the energy level of the orbital.

Lower (n+l) values correspond to lower orbital energies. If two orbitals share equal (n+l) values, the orbital with the lower n value is said to have lower energy associated with it.

The order in which the orbitals are filled with electrons is: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, and so on.

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Irina Irina
Dec 31, 2020
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