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using the graphic organizer write the following factors that you need to considered when determining the quality of an infividual ready to cook carcass or part ​

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237 cents John Cummings

Most of the relevant carcass and meat quality characteristics are quantitative traits whose phenotypic expression is the result of the joint action of several genes and environment. In general, the evaluation of the genetic merit of individuals and breeds is based on the analysis of phenotypic records plus pedigree information.

Although phenotypes are not perfect predictors of breeding values, conventional animal breeding methodologies have been effective in the genetic improvement of traits under selection. The limitation on obtaining phenotypic information of carcass and meat quality is a significant restriction for their genetic improvement, especially for meat quality. Modern in vivo noninvasive techniques allow the inclusion of carcass composition in the selection schemes using measurements on breeding animals, but the assessment or prediction of meat quality traits still relies on the implementation of siblings or progeny tests, which lead to longer generation intervals and, consequently, slower genetic progress.

The inclusion of the genetic information provided by molecular markers can make a significant contribution to the genetic improvement of carcass and meat quality traits. Estimations of genetic merit can be available for breeding animals at younger ages with levels of accuracies that were not possible before. Higher selection accuracies and shorter generation intervals will lead to higher rates of genetic improvement. In addition, it would be possible to consider in breeding programs some very difficult and expensive traits to measure, such as fatty acid composition or flavor. Furthermore, it will be possible to investigate the differential expression of genes in different muscles and different in vivo and postmortem phases, by the application of transcriptomics and proteomics. Based on the information provided by the transcriptome and the proteome, these new ‘omics’ give insight into the genes being expressed and the proteins influencing metabolic pathways, thus complementing the understanding achieved through genomics.

John Cummings
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