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choose one of the concepts from Bennet and Royle and use the perspective laid out in that chapter as a lens to read one of the primary texts we have read this semester

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Almost all people are ethnocentric to some extent, but, realizing their own ethnocentrism, a person should try to respect the ethnocentrism of other people and develop flexibility in interacting with them. The ability to build effective communications with representatives of other ethnic groups and cultures is associated with the development of intercultural competence skills, a positive attitude towards the presence of various ethnic groups in society, combined with the ability to understand their representatives and interact with partners from other cultures.

The process of development of ethnocultural competence is presented in the model of mastering a foreign culture by Milton Bennett, an American cultural scientist, director of the Research Institute for Intercultural Development (USA), which identifies six stages that reflect a person's attitude to differences between native and foreign ethnic groups.

According to the model of M. Bennett, a person goes through six stages of personal growth:

• three ethnocentric stages (denial of intercultural differences; protection from differences with their assessment in favor of one's own group; minimization of differences);

• three ethno-relativistic stages (recognition of differences; adaptation to differences between cultures or ethnic groups; integration, ie the application of ethno-relativism to one's own identity).

Ethnocentric stages

The stage of denial of intercultural differences is typical for people who do not have the skills or experience of communicating with representatives of other cultures. They are not aware of the differences between cultures, and their own picture of the world is considered by them as universal.

At the stage of denial, the most effective method of forming intercultural competence is the organization of intercultural events: international evenings, weeks of intercultural exchange, where you can get acquainted with other people's music, dances, costumes, cuisine, etc.

People experience the stage of protection from cultural differences when cultural differences are perceived as a threat to their existence. In such a situation, people try to resist them, considering the values ​​and norms of their own culture as the only true ones, and others as "wrong". This stage, in extreme forms, can be characterized by obsessive calls to be proud of one's own culture, which is seen as an ideal for all mankind.

As an example, we can cite the theory of evolutionism in ethnology, which stands on the positions of Eurocentrism and considers all other cultures to be less developed. Within the framework of the same concept, the term "developing countries", which is widely used today, was born, which considers the progress of the European and American levels as a standard for the development of all countries.

At the stage of protection, such methods of forming intercultural competence are effective, which pay attention to the elements of culture common to all interacting cultures, and especially to their positive features.

The stage of minimizing intercultural differences means that people recognize them, do not associate negative assessments with them, but define them as insignificant. At this stage of development of intercultural competence, stories about one's own experience of intercultural contact and other examples that demonstrate cultural differences in behavior are most effective. It is useful at this time to arrange a meeting with representatives of a different culture who can clearly demonstrate these differences.

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