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Ancient people

Historians have determined the time of the appearance of the first man on Earth – it happened about 2, 5 million years ago: then he was still covered with fur and did not have speech. He is called the “erect man” or Australopithecus. About one and a half million years ago, he was replaced by a “skilled man” – more developed and having the beginnings of culture.

How ancient people lived: Gen

In harsh conditions, it was impossible to survive alone, so people united in communities where they engaged in collective labor. They had common tools, and the loot was also shared among all members of the community. Thanks to such a device, it became possible to transfer knowledge from generation to generation: the older members of the community taught the younger ones the necessary skills, if new information appeared, it was added to the already known one – this was how it accumulated.

Tools and fire

The tools of ancient people were quite primitive: the main tools were made of stone, which was then used to process wood and bone. From stones, chipping off pieces of the right shape and size, primitive people made scrapers, choppers and spears, which replaced just a pointed stick. The dishes were mainly made of wood or animal bones. Later, a person learned to weave baskets and nets for fishing. Excavating the sites of ancient people, archaeologists received a lot of important finds, according to which these facts were restored.

Hunting and gathering

Already at this stage, labor was divided into female and male. The weaker ones, women, were engaged in gathering, looking for herbs, roots and berries in the forest, as well as bird eggs, larvae, snails, etc. Men went hunting. How did ancient people hunt?

They not only used roundups, but also dug traps, made traps.

Both hunting and gathering are appropriating forms of economy that forced tribes to a nomadic way of life: emptying one area, they moved to another. When the bow and arrow appeared, more food was extracted, the devastation occurred faster. In addition, parking had to be located close to the water, and this complicated the search for a new place. So conditions forced people to move from the appropriating form to the producing one.

Agriculture and cattle breeding

First, people began to tame animals, and first they domesticated a dog, which later helped to graze herds and hunt, and also guarded the house. Then pigs, goats and sheep were tamed. Having mastered the skills of their breeding, ancient man was able to start cattle. Herds were also communal.

The horse was the last to be domesticated – this happened around the 4th century BC. According to archaeological evidence, the tribes living in the western part of the Eurasian steppes were the very first to do this.

Women were engaged in agriculture. The planting process looked like this: the earth was loosened with a digging stick, where the seeds of local useful plants were thrown. Later, this primitive tool was replaced by a shovel, which was made of wood with a stone scraper, then it was replaced with a hoe: a stick with a branch, and then a stick with a sharp stone tied to it.

The appearance of Neanderthals

This kind of man appeared about 200 thousand years ago. By this time, a person has already learned how to make fire, his life has become more ritualized. Due to the onset of the ice Age, people moved to live in caves, they had crafts, for example, making skins from which they sewed fur coats. In the same period, art was born: drawings made by the hand of primitive man were still very primitive – just stripes and lines, but soon images of animals appeared. Neanderthals did not have such a developed form of communication as writing.

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